পরীক্ষা-২: সাইন্স, টেকনোলজী এন্ড ইসলাম

সাবজেক্টটা একটু কেমন কেমন মনে হচ্ছে তাইনা? ইঞ্জিনিয়ারিং ইউনিভার্সিটিতে আবার এটা কোন সাবজেক্ট! হ্যা, এটা আমাদেরই সাবজেক্ট। ইসলাম বিষয়ক ৩ টা কোর্স করতে হয়। ফার্স্ট সেমিস্টারে স্পোকেন এরাবিক আর ইসলামিয়াত ছিল; আর এখন সেভেন্থ সেমিস্টারে সাইন্স, টেকনোলজী এন্ড ইসলাম । সাবজেক্টটা পড়তে ভালোই লাগে। মনে ইস! কোরআন যদি সিরিয়াসলি অন্যান্য সাবজেক্টের মতো পড়তাম! কিন্তু বছরে ঠিক ২-১ দিনই পড়া হয়, পরীক্ষার আগে।

এই সাবজেক্ট কঠিন কিছু না। কোরআনের সাথে বিজ্ঞানের কিছু মিল আরকি যেমনঃ ভ্রূনবিদ্যা, ফটোসিনথেসিস ইত্যাদি। রিলেটেড টপিকের উপর কোরআনের আয়াতগুলো লিখতে হয়, আর সেই বিষয়ে বিজ্ঞান কি বলে এই। সবচেয়ে বড় কথা পরীক্ষাটা ওপেনবুক, মানে পরীক্ষার হলে কোরআন দেখে লেখা যায়।

আজকের পরীক্ষাটা ভালোই হয়েছে। কালকের মতো আজকেও সময় শেষ হয়ে যাচ্ছিল, শেষ মুহূর্তে খুব দ্রুত লেখে কোনমতে কমপ্লিট করেছি। আজকের পরীক্ষাটা একটু অন্যরকম ছিল। সবাই একসাথে অজু করে পরীক্ষার হলে কোরআন নিয়ে যাচ্ছি, অন্যরকম এক অনুভুতি। আজকের পরীক্ষাটা সম্ভবত সবারই খুব ভাল হয়েছে।

7 responses to “পরীক্ষা-২: সাইন্স, টেকনোলজী এন্ড ইসলাম

    • ওয়ালাইকুমুস সালাম।
      সেরকমই কিছুটা। আমার ক্লাশ লেকচার নোট থেকে খসড়াভাবে কিছু অংশ তুলে দিচ্ছিঃ

      TOPIC 1: INTRODUCTION

      The holy Quran constantly encourages man to look around him and also at his own self. The very first and second verse revealed to Prophet Muhammad (SAWs) is a testimony to the fact.

      While the first verse refers to the created objects around us, the second verse refers to man him.
      Reference to our creation is mentioned again and again in the holy Quran. Verse 17, 18 and 19 of Surah Abasa.
      Allah (SWT) not only talks about objects presently available but also indicates that he will endow mankind with abilities to unveil the secrets of nature as man proceeds with time. Evidence to the statement is the verses 17, 18, 19 and 20 of Surah Ghashiyah. An even more firm example is versa 53 and 54 of Surah Fussilat.

      A great scholar of Islam Ibnul Qayyim writes in his book “Men and the Universe”,
      By considering the verses of the Quran in which Allah (SWT) asks his servants to reflect upon Him, one will be led learned about Allah (SWT), about his oneness and attributes of perfection as attested by absoluteness of his power and the infinite nature of his wisdom.

      TOPIC 2: STAGES OF CREATION

      ALLAH says in verses 12, 13 and 14 of surah al-Muminun of the Holy Quran
      Professor Keith More a prominent scientist of anatomy and embryology was requested to give the scientific analysis of the mentioned Quranic verses. Professor Keith was astounded by the content. He wondered how the scripture revealed 14 centuries back could describe the embryo and its development phase in such details that has only been recently discovered by embryologist. According to the quranic verses the stages of creation can be classified as:

      1. Extracts of Clay
      2. Nutfah (drop)
      3. Alaqah (clot of blood)
      4. Mudgah (chewed flesh)
      5. Ezam (bony structure)
      6. Cladding the structure with skin and muscle
      7. Creation.

      The Arabic word ‘alaqah has three meanings. The first meaning is “leech”. The second is “a suspended thing”. The third meaning is “a blood clot”. In comparing the fresh-water leech to the embryo at the ‘alaqah stage, Professor Moore found a great similarity between the two. He concluded that the embryo during the ‘alaqah stage acquires an appearance very similar to that of leech.

      The second meaning of the word ‘alaqah is “a suspended thing”, and this is what we can see in the attachment of the embryo during the ‘alaqah stage to the uterus (womb) of the mother. The third meaning of the word ‘alaqah is “a blood clot”. It is significant to note, as Professor Moore stated, that the embryo during the ‘alaqah stage goes through well known internal events, such as the formation of blood in closed vessels, until the metabolic cycle is completed through placenta. During the ‘alaqah stage, the blood is caught within closed vessels and that is why the embryo acquires the appearance of a blood clot, in addition to the leech-like appearance. Both descriptions are miraculously given by a single Qur’aanic word ‘alaqah.

      Professor more also studied the Mudgah stage in detail. He chewed a lump of raw claw and when it was compared with the structure of the embryo in the mudgah stage to his astonishment they looked exactly similar. Contemporary study of embryology suggests that the next phase of the developing human is the formation of bones and structure. This is what is exactly meant by the word Ezam in the holy Quran. The Quran then mentions about the cladding of bones by skin and muscle and finally the mysterious process of inserting the life into creation. Thus all the process mentioned in the Quran is backed by modern embryologic studies without any missing links.

      TOPIC 3: LIMIT OF THE SKY

      In verse 2 and 3 of surah Mulk Allah (SWT) says,
      ..Your vision will return to you humbled and fatigued.
      Let us analyze the statement in the light of the latest discoveries of modern astronomers.
      Before the invention of the telescope by Galileo in the 17th century, man had no idea about the objects in the sky. It is with the invention of this instrument that the progress of modern astronomy started.
      Man learned that the nearest object in the sky is the moon (diameter-2160 miles) at a distance of 2, 38000 miles away from us.

      The largest object visible from earth sky is the sun (diameter- 8, 65000 miles).
      The sun is just an ordinary star. The next star closest to the earth after the sun is the Proxima Centouri.
      The distance of the Proxima Centouri from the earth is so large that it convenient to express it in terms of a new unit of distance-the light year.

      (Light year is the distance travelled by light in 1 year)
      In the light year scale:
      Distance of sun = 8.5 minutes
      Distance of Proxima Centouri= 4.5 years

      The sun, Proxima Centouri and many other stars belong to a family of stars called the Milky Way.
      The number of stars in the Milky Way galaxy is quoted as 100 billion and its shape and diameter are given as follows. The sun is located at a distance of 30000 light years from the centre of the Milky Way.

      Again the number of galaxies like the Milky Way is estimated to be around 100 billion. The farthest galaxies are at a distance of 109 light years from one another and the most interesting fact of all is that they are moving away from earth at a speed of 75000 miles/second. From Hubble’s law and the theory of the expanding universe formulated from the observations of receding stars, we know that the further a star is away from us the faster it is moving away from us.

      Thus looking at the vastness of the universe our vision only returns to us humiliated and tired.

      TOPIC4: THE EAR AND THE EYE
      The two organs most often mentioned in the Holy Quran are the ear and the eye.
      (Supporting versed from the Quran)

      Modern scientific discoveries relating to the ear and eye are astonishing.
      The figure shows the response of a human ear to sounds of various frequencies.
      The human ear can detect sounds of frequencies between 26 to 20000 hertz with maximum sensitivity at the range of 1000 to 4000 hertz. This limit is called the absolute threshold of frequency. However sound intensities is measured in terms of decibels which are not an absolute unit of measurement but rather a ratio between a given sound intensity and a reference value. A bel is the logarithm to the base 10 of the ratio of a sound of given intensity to the reference value. A decibel 1/10th of the bel.

      A convenient reference can be a sound intensity of 1000 hz that can be barely heard by an individual. The standard is used as the zero point in the vertical axis.
      Thus a sound 10 times as intense has a value of 1bel or 10dB. Likewise a sound 1000 times as intense has a value of 3 bel or 40dB.

      Humans may respond to sound of 140 decibel which means they are responding to a sound that is 1014of the reference value. The unbelievable capacity of our ear is revealed from the above discussion.

      TOPIC 5: ALTERATION OF THE NIGHT AND THE DAY
      The holy Quran constantly encourages man to look around him and different phenomenon. The objective is to let man know about the supreme ability of Allah so that he inclines submits and follows his guidance. One such phenomenon is the alteration of the night and the day. Allah says in the holy Quran-

      There are two types of earth motion rotational and orbital. The earth rotates in its axis completely in 24 hours which makes the speed of the earth more than 1000miles/hr considering the equatorial distance of about 25000miles.
      The earth orbits around the sun at a speed of 66600 miles /hr.

      The orbit of the earth around the sun an ellipse with the sun being the focus.
      All along the orbital motion the north spin pole of the earth points towards a star called the Polaris. Hence it is called the North Pole. This makes the axis of rotation inclined at an angle of 66.5 degree with the axis.
      The rotation of the earth on its axis causes day and night

      The revolution that is the orbital movement around the sun causes the seasons.
      Modern science equips us to realize the supreme creational ability of our Creator and the benefits that are made available to mankind. The two motions of the earth are along with the INCLINATION of the earth’s axis are supreme importance to mankind.

      THE CYCLE OF SEASONS

      Seasons are closely related to the position of the earth in its orbit at different times of the year.
      Spring 21ist March (Equinox)
      Summer 21st June (Solstice)
      Autumn 23rd September (Equinox)
      Winter 22nd December (Solstice)

      A STARTLING DISCOVERY OF MODERN SCIENCE
      Refers to Venus

      TOPIC 6: SIGNS WITHIN OURSELVES

      Refers to FUSSILAT 51-54
      Scientific discoveries relating to the functions of our internal organs would make great volumes. As a sample we will discuss the process of respiration, how science has enabled man to see the wonderful functions being performed by our lungs.

      Life processes of humans involve the expenditure of energy and it is through the oxidation of molecules containing carbon that this energy along with carbon dioxide is released.
      Respiration is the process by which animal organisms consume oxygen and release carbon dioxide. The consumption of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide in animal respiration is an exchange that stands in remarkable relationship with plant life-plants take carbon dioxide and yield up oxygen which can again enter in animal oxidation.
      Mammalian lungs are referred to as alveolar lungs.

      The lungs terminate in blind ending alveoli (extremely small moist air sacks) after 25-30 sub-branching.
      Human lungs contain about 35 crores alveoli.

      Gas inside the alveoli and blood inside the profuse network of capillaries investing the alveolar walls are separated by less than 0.5 micro meter of intervening tissue.
      The surface area of transfer is about 280 ft2 i.e. 80 m2

      TOPIC 7: YOUR PROVISION LIES IN THE SKY

      TOPIC 8: PLACES OF HAPPENINGS OF STARS AND BLACK HOLES
      VERSE 75 AND 76 OF SURAH WAQIAH ARE STATED.
      For the past 1400 years verse 75 has been translated as “I swear by the setting of the stars”. Only in this century Muslim scientists have pointed out the meaning of the term Mawaqiun Nujum is actually the places of happenings of the stars. This meaning is derived from the basic verb waqaha which means it happened.

      Muslim scientists referred to the latest discoveries of modern astronomy related to stellar evolution or what happened to the star through its life cycle.
      A few basic comments on what happens to a star as it proceeds in its life till its death.
      Stellar evolution refers to the large scale, systematic and irreversible changes with time of the structure and composition of a star.

      Stars are born, age and die much like living things, but the time scales involved and incomparably large: for stars like the sun, the life times are on the order of 1010 years, and for the most massive stars, whose life expectancy is much shorter, the life span is still of the order of 107 and 108 years. As a consequence the stellar evolution cannot be observed directly.

      A star forms when a portion of dense, interstellar cloud of hydrogen and dust grains collapses from its own gravity. As the cloud condenses and density and internal temperature increase until it is hot enough to trigger nuclear fusion reaction in its core. (Hydrogen is converted to Helium)

      After hydrogen is exhausted in the form of nuclear burning, the core shrinks and heats up while the stars outer layer expands significantly and cool and the star becomes a RED GIANT. The final stages of a star’s evolution when it no longer produces enough energy to counteract its own gravity depend largely on its mass and whether it is a component of a close binary system.

      One of the end points of gravitational collapse is the black hole, in which the collapsing matter fades from view leaving only a centre gravitational attraction behind.

      General theory of relativity predicts that if a star of more than 3 solar masses has completely burned its nuclear fuel, it should collapse to a configuration known as BLACK HOLE. The resulting object is independent of the properties of the matter that produced it and can be completely described by stating its mass, spin and the charge.

      The most striking feature of this object is the existence of a surface called horizon which completely encloses the collapsed matter. The horizon is an ideal one way membrane that is, particles and light can go inward through the surface by none can go outward. As a result, the object is dark that is black and hides from view a finite region of space.

      A super massive black hole with a mass of a few hundred thousand solar masses would have a radius comparable to the radius of the earth.

      TOPIC 9: THE SPERMATOZOON, THE SEED, WATER AND FIRE.
      The four items of topic 9 are taken from references in the same surah. (Waqiah 56-58)
      Verses 58, 63, 68 and 71 are mentioned.
      SPERMATOZOON
      The plural of spermatozoon is spermatozoa.
      A single emission contains millions of spermatozoon.
      Only 1 spermatozoon is required for the fertilization of an egg.
      Electron microscope picture and description of a spermatozoon:
      The companion verses of verse 58 are 59, 60, 61 and 62.
      SEED:
      REFERS TO VERSE 63, 64 AND 65 OF SURAH 56
      Modern science tells us that it is through the process of Pollination that we get the seed.
      Mention 36:36 and 51:49
      POLLINATION: The transfer of pollen grains in seed plants from the stamens where they form the ovules or ovule bearing organs. Pollination is a prerequisite for fertilization and production of seeds.
      WATER:
      MENTION VERSES 68, 69 AND 70 OF SURAH 56
      In verse 69 there is a hidden challenge to mankind that artificial rainfall technology will not reach a commercially viable level, that is, large scale rainfall cannot be achieved by artificial means even when a mature cloud is over our heads!
      Artificial rainfall technology was first achieved in the 1950s but since then no significant development has taken place to cause large scale rainfall by artificial means.
      The verses were revealed 1400 years ago when mankind had no knowledge regarding evaporation and formation of clouds.
      Sea water is evaporated by the sun’s rays and clouds form from the evaporated water molecules, this is a recent discovery.
      The reference is 56:70, reminds mankind that instead of providing them with sweet water from the clouds Allah (swt) could have caused saline water from the sky to be carried by winds to distant land masses and then dropped down so that man would get saline water as rains.
      FIRE:
      REFERS TO VERSE 71, 72 AND 74 OF SURAH 56

      TOPIC 10: EXPANDING UNIVERSE
      The sky is pointed out again and again in the Holy Quran as an object to be observed and to contemplate upon.
      Verses 88:18, 79:27, 79:28 50:06 and 51:47 are quoted as examples. Latest findings in modern astronomy reveal that the furthest galaxies are receding from our earth at higher and higher speeds. The greater the distance the more the receding speed. Galaxies at the furthest point of the observation are moving away from us at a stupendous speed of 75000 miles/second.

      Astronomers have therefore formulated the theory of the EXPANDING UNIVERSE
      Many such verses whose meaning make us marvel when seen in the light of the latest scientific findings occur in the holy Quran. What is the purpose of these mentions? Many Muslim scientists call these miracles of the holy Quran. But a famous Islamic scholar of the Indian subcontinent Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi (died 1943) says the holy Quran is neither a book of history nor philosophy or science but it is a SPIRITUAL HOSPITAL! It treats a patient who has forgotten his dearest being!

      As an example of this viewpoint we can just follow the verses which came after 51:47, the verse pointing to the expanding universe
      Quote 51:48, 51:49 and 51:50
      Obviously the spiritual hospital (that is the Holy Quran) calls us to flee to Allah (to submit ourselves to him). Give figure 3 pg 62

      BIG BANG THEORY
      The theory currently best available to explain the observed properties of the universe is the big bang theory which suggests that the universe began in a primeval fireball of almost UNIMAGINABLE temperature and density.
      The Quranic reference to the beginning of the universe is very simple. In surah Yaseen which is called the heart of the Quran by the Holy Prophet verse 82.

      The big bang theory in fact points out to a similar beginning as pointed out in 36:82
      Topic 11: BLESSED WATER
      Quote verse 50:09
      The holy Quran calls water as a blessed object. Water is frequently mentioned as a mercy from Allah
      There are numerous verses different with different aspects of water: its supply, its storage, its distribution etc.
      TALL MOUNTAINS AND SWEET WATER SUPPLY
      Refer to verse 77:27
      Compare the data on the latest discoveries on water storage and its supply to humanity with the statement to the verse under reference.
      Earth’s approximate water volume that is the total water supply of the world is 1360,000,000 km3
      Of this volume:
      1320,000,000 km3 (97.3%) is in the oceans.
      25,000,000 km3 (1.8%) is in the glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets.
      13,000,000 km3 (0.9%) is in ground water. Reference 23:18
      250,000 km3 (0.02%) is fresh water in lakes, inland sees and rivers.
      13,000 km3 (0.001%) in atmosphere as water vapor in any given time.

      All the big rivers of the world have their origin at tall mountains. 1.8% of the world’s total water supply is stored at the mountain tips. It is mentioned in the Quran at 77:27 and 32:27. If we study the meandering process of rivers throughout the whole world, the wonderful distribution of sweet water can be compared to the expression “I drive”!
      This is actually the largest storage of sweet water. The rivers of the world distribute sweet water to mankind over the whole year.

      Rivers are also mentioned separately as a special gift from the supreme Creator.
      Verse 27:61 and 14:32 is a testimony to the fact.

      USES OF WATER:
      The holy Quran described water as a blessed liquid 1400 years ago. Modern man has been using water for many purposes. The main use of water is at home. It has been estimated that in large for home 60L of water is used in toilet, 40L for washing, 25L for washing clothes, 15L for dishwashing, 7L for cooking and 3L is used for drinking.
      For industry
      Industry uses a large quantity of water. Most of these is used for cooling. A large power station for example may use up to 5 million liters of water per day. Most power stations also uses water for producing steam.
      THE WONDERFUL PROPERTIES OF WATER:

      Modern science has supplied us with a great deal of information on the wonderful properties of the blessed liquid.
      Some major physical and chemical properties of water:
      Water is a very strong solvent and is referred to as UNIVERSAL SOLVENT dissolving many type of substances.
      Life depends on water for virtually every process; its ability to dissolve many other substances is perhaps its most essential quality.

      All major components in cell (proteins, DNA and polysaccharides) are also dissolved in water.
      Water has the second highest specific heat capacity of any known chemical compound after ammonia as well as a high heat of vaporization (40.65KJ/mole).
      TOPIC 12: LAND, WATER AND AIR TRANSPORTATION: QURANIC MENTIONS AND PREDICTIONS
      REFER TO SURAH NAHL
      In the holy Quran Allah has repeatedly reminded mankind of the numerous blessings bestowed upon him by his most compassionate Creator.

      In surah 16 Allah mentions the blessing in a super style of description. That is why the surah is called the surah of blessing.
      Verses 5-8 of surah 16 are quoted.
      A famous Islamic scholar of modern times Allama Taqi Usmani on the particular verse 16:08 says,
      This verse foretells that Allah (swt) will give mankind many other forms of transport that were not known to mankind at the time of revelation of the holy Quran. All the modern means of transportation like cars, aircrafts are thus included in the meaning of this verse.
      Q.Why will Allah create such a new means of transport?
      The answers to the above question is given in verse 7
      Also refer to verse 41 and 42 of the surah Yaseen
      According to the view of Muslim scholars verse 42 contains a prediction to aircrafts on air which are like the ships. The mention the “the like of it” they say refer to the plane which floats on the air.
      Mention verse 12, 13 and 14 of surah 43.

      The above prayer in verse 13 and 14 of surah 43 is universally made by Muslims when they board a transport.
      In surah Bani Israil verse 70 Allah (swt) refers to the gift of transport to mankind in a unique language.

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